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No ke aha e ʻōpala ai nā kiwi kila kuhiliʻole?

Manaʻo ka poʻe i kēlāka pahu hopuo ke kila kuhiliʻole a ʻaʻole e ʻōpala.Inā pēlā, pilikia paha ia i ke kila.He kuhi hewa ʻole kēia e pili ana i ka ʻike ʻole o ke kila kila, hiki nō hoʻi ke ʻōpala ma lalo o kekahi mau kūlana.

Hiki i ke kila kila ke kū'ē i ka oxidation eaʻo ia hoʻi, ka pale ʻana i ka ʻōpala, a hiki nō hoʻi ke hoʻoheheʻe ʻia i loko o ka media i loaʻa nā waikawa, alkalis, a me nā paʻakai.ʻo ia hoʻi, ka pale ʻana i ka corrosion.Eia nō naʻe, ua hoʻololi ʻia ka nui o kona hiki anti-corrosion me ke ʻano kemika o kāna kila ponoʻī, ke kūlana o ka pale, nā kūlana o ka hoʻohana ʻana a me ke ʻano o ka media kaiapuni.

 

Hoʻokaʻawale pinepine ʻia ke kila kila i:

ʻO ka maʻamau, e like me ka hoʻolālā metallographic, ua māhele ʻia ke kila kila maʻamau i ʻekolu mau ʻāpana: austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel, a me martensitic stainless steel.Ma ke kumu o kēia mau mea hana metallographic kumu ʻekolu, no nā pono a me nā kumu kikoʻī, loaʻa nā kila ʻelua-phase, nā kila kuhili paʻakikī paʻakikī a me nā kila kila kiʻekiʻe me ka hao ma lalo o 50% i loaʻa.

1. Austenitic kila kila.

Hoʻomalu ʻia ka matrix e ka austenite structure (CY phase) o ke alo-centered cubic crystal structure, non-magnetic, a ua hoʻoikaika nui ʻia e ka hana anu (a hiki ke alakaʻi i kekahi mau waiwai magnetic) stainless steel.Ua koho ʻia ka American Iron and Steel Institute e nā helu ma ka pūʻulu 200 a me 300, e like me 304.

2. Ferritic kuhiliʻole kila.

ʻO ka matrix i hoomaluia e ka ferrite structure ((a phase) o ke kino-centered cubic crystal structure, which is magnetic and ma'amau hiki ole ke paakiki e ka wela, aka, hiki ke hooikaika iki ia e ka hana anu. Ua kahaia ka American Iron and Steel Institute me 430 a me 446.

3. Ke kila kuhiliʻole Martensitic.

ʻO ka matrix kahi ʻano martensitic (kubiki i waena o ke kino a i ʻole cubic), magnetic, a hiki ke hoʻoponopono ʻia kona mau waiwai me ka mālama wela.ʻO ka American Iron and Steel Institute ka mea i koho ʻia e nā helu 410, 420 a me 440. He ʻano austenite ka Martensite i ka wela kiʻekiʻe, a i ka wā e hoʻomaha ai i ka lumi wela ma kahi kūpono kūpono, hiki ke hoʻololi ʻia ka hale austenite i martensite (ʻo ia hoʻi, paʻakikī). .

4. Austenitic-ferritic (duplex) kila kila.

Loaʻa i ka matrix ka austenite a me ka ferrite ʻelua-phase structure, a ʻoi aku ka nui o ka ʻike o ka matrix liʻiliʻi ma mua o 15%.He magnetic a hiki ke hoʻoikaika ʻia e ka hana anu.ʻO 329 kahi kila kuhiliʻole duplex maʻamau.Ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka austenitic stainless steel, ʻelua-phase steel he ikaika kiʻekiʻe, a ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ke kūʻē ʻana i ka corrosion intergranular a me ka chloride stress corrosion a me ka pitting corrosion.

5. Ua hoʻopaʻakikī ʻia ke kila kila.

He austenite a martensitic paha ka matrix a hiki ke paakiki me ka paakiki o ka ua.Ua hōʻailona ʻia ka American Iron and Steel Institute me kahi helu 600 series, e like me 630, ʻo ia ka 17-4PH.

Ma ka ʻōlelo maʻamau, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka hoʻohui ʻana i nā alloys, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ke kūpaʻa corrosion o ke kila stainless austenitic.I loko o kahi kaiapuni liʻiliʻi liʻiliʻi, hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia ke kila stainless ferritic.I loko o kahi kaiapuni haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa, inā makemake ʻia ka mea kiʻekiʻe No ka ikaika a i ʻole ka paʻakikī kiʻekiʻe, hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia ke kila kuhiliʻole martensitic a me ke kila paʻakikī paʻakikī.

 

Nā māka kila kuhiliʻole maʻamau a me nā waiwai

01 304 Ke kila kila

ʻO ia kekahi o nā kila kila austenitic i hoʻohana nui ʻia a hoʻohana nui ʻia.He kūpono ia no ka hana ʻana i nā ʻāpana hohonu a me nā pipeline acid, nā ipu, nā ʻāpana hana, nā kino mea kani like ʻole, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe.

02 304L kila kila

I mea e hoʻoponopono ai i ka pilikia o ka ultra-low carbon austenitic stainless steel i hoʻomohala ʻia ma muli o ka ua o Cr23C6 e hoʻopiʻi ana i ke ʻano koʻikoʻi intergranular corrosion o 304 stainless steel ma lalo o kekahi mau kūlana, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o kona kūlana sensitized intergranular corrosion resistance ma mua o ka 304 stainless steel.Ma waho aʻe o ka ikaika haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa, ua like nā waiwai ʻē aʻe me 321 stainless steel.Hoʻohana nui ʻia ia no nā lako pale corrosion a me nā ʻāpana ʻaʻole hiki ke hoʻokō ʻia i ka mālama ʻana i ka hopena ma hope o ka wili ʻana, a hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia e hana i nā kino mea kani.

03 304H Ke kila kila

ʻO ka lālā i loko o ka 304 stainless steel he hapa kalapona o 0.04% -0.10%, a ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o kāna hana wela ma mua o ka 304 stainless steel.

04 316 Ke kila kila

ʻO ka hoʻohui ʻana i ka molybdenum ma ke kumu o ke kila 10Cr18Ni12 e hana maikaʻi ai ke kila i ka hoʻohaʻahaʻa ʻana i ka medium a me ka pitting corrosion.I loko o ka wai kai a me nā ʻano media ʻē aʻe, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka pale ʻana i ka corrosion ma mua o 304 stainless steel, i hoʻohana nui ʻia no nā mea paʻa pitting.

05 316L kila kila

ʻO ke kila kalapona haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa he kūpaʻa maikaʻi i ka corrosion intergranular sensitized a he kūpono ia no ka hana ʻana i nā ʻāpana welded a me nā mea hana me nā ana ʻāpana mānoanoa, e like me nā mea corrosion-resistant i nā lako petrochemical.

06 316H Ke kila kila

ʻO ka lālā i loko o ka 316 stainless steel he hapa kalapona o 0.04% -0.10%, a ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o kāna hana wela ma mua o ka 316 stainless steel.

07 317 Ke kila kila

ʻOi aku ka maikaʻi o ka pitting corrosion resistance a me ka creep resistance ma mua o ka 316L stainless steel, i hoʻohana ʻia i ka hana ʻana i nā mea hoʻoheheʻe petrochemical a me nā mea hoʻonaninani.

08 321 Ke kila kila

ʻO ka Titanium-stabilized austenitic stainless steel, hoʻohui i ka titanium e hoʻomaikaʻi i ke kūpaʻa intergranular corrosion, a loaʻa nā waiwai mechanical wela kiʻekiʻe, hiki ke pani ʻia e ka ultra-low carbon austenitic stainless steel.Ma waho aʻe o nā hanana kūikawā e like me ke kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe a i ʻole hydrogen corrosion resistance, ʻaʻole ʻōlelo ʻia no ka hoʻohana.

09 347 Ke kila kila

ʻO Niobium-stabilized austenitic stainless steel, hoʻohui i ka niobium e hoʻomaikaʻi i ke kūpaʻa intergranular corrosion, ke kūpaʻa ʻana o ka corrosion i loko o ka waikawa, alkali, paʻakai a me nā mea ʻē aʻe corrosive e like me 321 stainless steel, maikaʻi kuʻihao hana, hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia e like me ka corrosion-resistant material and anti -corrosion Hoʻohana nui ʻia ke kila wela i ka mana wela a me nā māla petrochemical, e like me ka hana ʻana i nā ipu, nā paipu, nā mea hoʻololi wela, nā ʻauʻau, nā puʻupuʻu umu i loko o nā kapuahi ʻoihana, a me nā thermometers.

10 904L kila kila

ʻO ke kila kila austenitic piha piha he ʻano kila kila ʻoi loa i hana ʻia e OUTOKUMPU ma Finland., Loaʻa iā ia ke kūpaʻa corrosion maikaʻi i nā waikawa non-oxidizing e like me ka sulfuric acid, acetic acid, formic acid a me ka phosphoric acid, a he kūʻē maikaʻi hoʻi i ka crevice corrosion a me ke kaumaha corrosion kū'ē.He kūpono ia no nā ʻano ʻokoʻa o ka sulfuric acid ma lalo o 70°C, a he maikaʻi corrosion kū'ē i loko o ka aceticʻakika a hui pūʻia ka waika formic a me ka aceticʻakika ma kekahi noonoo a me ka mahana ma lalo o maʻamau kaomi.

11 440C kila kila

ʻO ke kila kila Martensitic ka paʻakikī kiʻekiʻe loa ma waena o nā kila kila a me nā kila kila, me ka paʻakikī o HRC57.Hoʻohana nui ʻia e hana i nā nozzles, bearings,lelelelekiwikā cores,lelelelekiwikā nā noho, nā lima lima,kiwikā kumu, etc.

12 17-4PH kila kila

ʻO Martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel me ka paʻakikī o HRC44 he ikaika kiʻekiʻe, paʻakikī a me ka pale ʻana i ka corrosion a ʻaʻole hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia i nā mahana ma luna o 300°C. He maikaʻi ka corrosion kū'ē i ka lewa a diluted acid a paʻakai paha.ʻO kona kūpaʻa corrosion e like me ka 304 stainless steel a me 430 stainless steel.Hoʻohana ʻia ia no ka hana ʻana i nā paepae o waho, nā lau turbine,lelelelekiwikā (nā pahu pahu, nā noho pahu, nā lima lima, nā kumu pahu) wait.

 

In kiwikā ʻO ka hoʻolālā a me ke koho ʻana, ʻike pinepine ʻia nā ʻōnaehana like ʻole, ka moʻo, a me nā māka o ke kila kila.I ke koho ʻana, pono e noʻonoʻo ʻia ka pilikia mai nā hiʻohiʻona he nui e like me ke kaʻina hana kikoʻī, ka mahana, ke kaomi, nā ʻāpana koʻikoʻi, corrosion, a me ke kumukūʻai.


Ka manawa hoʻouna: Iulai-20-2022